SURVEYING 

Updated: Sep 7

What is Surveying? Surveying is the process of analyzing and recording the characteristics of a land area span to help design a plan or map for construction.

Total Station is the currently preferred Surveying equipment in the industry. Find out What is a Total Station? here and about Survey camp using Total Station workshop here.

Categories of Surveying are:

1. Geodetic Surveying: Surveys are carried out on a large scale with the help of control networks spanning over long distances.

2. Cadastral Surveying: Surveys are carried out to define land ownership and boundaries.

3. Topographical Surveying: Surveys are carried out to determine land structure along with variation in land heights.

4. As Built Surveying: Surveys are carried out after completion of a construction project to check variance from proposed design.

5. Photogrammetry (Aerial Surveying): Surveys are carried out by taking photographs from elevated ground stations.

6. LiDAR (Aerial Surveying): Surveys are carried out using remote sensors and light reflected by lasers to measure distances.

Fundamental techniques used for Surveying are:

Triangulation:

In this technique numerous triangles are inter-connected and overlapped to measure angles from a surveying station.

Trilateration: It follows the same technique as in Triangulation with additional use of Electronic Distance Meter (EDM).

Traverse: In this technique multiple lines of pre-measured lengths are inter-connected to measure angles and distances.

Leveling: In this technique the difference in heights in a terrain are measured with the help of graduated rods.

Radiation: In this technique radiating lines are drawn from a focal point to defined boundaries converted to a small scale surveying sheet. Surveying finds multiple industrial applications across various domains. It is an integral part of Civil Engineering Discipline.


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